ASP.NET Core WebApi AspNetCoreRateLimit 限流中间件学习

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ASP.NET Core WebApi AspNetCoreRateLimit 限流中间件学习

时间:2019-06-13本站浏览次数:12

       

AspNetCoreRateLimit介绍:

AspNetCoreRateLimit是ASP.NET核心速率限制框架,能够对WebApi,Mvc中控制限流,AspNetCoreRateLimit包包含IpRateLimit中间件和ClientRateLimit中间件,每个中间件都可以为不同的场景设置多个限,该框架的作者是stefanprodan,项目nuget地址是https://github.com/stefanprodan/AspNetCoreRateLimit。

对客户端IP限流控制。

首先nuget安装 Install-Package AspNetCoreRateLimit ,在Startup中Code以下代码,添加服务和注入,其中的配置是什么;注释都有了。

// This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to add services to the container. public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services) { services.AddMvc().SetCompatibilityVersion(CompatibilityVersion.Version_2_1); //添加appsettings.json services.AddOptions(); //需要存储速率和ip规则 services.AddMemoryCache(); //加载appsettings.json中的配置项 ,下面三项是加载general,rules services.Configure<IpRateLimitOptions>(Configuration.GetSection("IpRateLimiting")); services.Configure<IpRateLimitPolicies>(Configuration.GetSection("IpRateLimitPolicies")); //注入计时器和规则 services.AddSingleton<IIpPolicyStore, MemoryCacheIpPolicyStore>(); services.AddSingleton<IRateLimitCounterStore, MemoryCacheRateLimitCounterStore>(); //添加框架服务 services.AddMvc(); }

在Configure中配置RateLimit的启动

// This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to configure the HTTP request pipeline. public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env,ILoggerFactory loggerFactory) { loggerFactory.AddConsole(Configuration.GetSection("Logging")); loggerFactory.AddDebug(); app.UseIpRateLimiting(); if (env.IsDevelopment()) app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage(); app.UseMvc(); }

 我们还需要再appsettings.json中写入配置和规则:

"IpRateLimiting": { "EnableEndpointRateLimiting": false, "StackBlockedRequests": false, "RealIpHeader": "X-Real-IP", "ClientIdHeader": "X-ClientId", "HttpStatusCode": 429, "IpWhitelist": [ "127.0.0.1", "::1/10", "192.168.0.0/24" ], "EndpointWhitelist": [ "get:/api/license", "*:/api/status" ], "ClientWhitelist": [ "dev-id-1", "dev-id-2" ], "GeneralRules": [ { "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "1s", "Limit": 2 }, { "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "15m", "Limit": 100 }, { "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "12h", "Limit": 1000 }, { "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "7d", "Limit": 10000 } ] }

如果EnableEndpointRateLimiting设置为false,那么这些限制就全局使用,例如,如果设置每秒5次调用的限制,对任何端口的任何http调用都计入这个限制,反之,如果它是true,那么该限制将应用于{端口}{path}中的每个端点。

如果stackblockedrequest设置为false,则不会将拒绝调用添加到节流阀计数器,如果你要拒绝你必须设置为true;

ClientidHeader用于提取白清单的客户端id,如果客户端id在这个里面,就不会应用速率限制。

覆盖特定IP一般规则:

"IpRateLimitPolicies": { "IpRules": [ { "Ip": "84.247.85.224", "Rules": [ { "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "1s", "Limit": 10 }, { "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "15m", "Limit": 200 } ] }, { "Ip": "192.168.3.22/25", "Rules": [ { "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "1s", "Limit": 5 }, { "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "15m", "Limit": 150 }, { "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "12h", "Limit": 500 } ] } ] }

 IP字段支持IP v4和v6值,我们还需要去定义速率限制规则

规则由端点,期间和限制组成,示例(将所有的端点的速率限制每秒2次呼叫),那么定义如下:

{ "Endpoint": "*", "Period": "1s", "Limit": 2}

 如果在同一端点,例如get/values在一秒中你调用了3次,那么第三次将会被阻止;但是如果说你在同一秒内还调用了Put/values那么不会阻止,因为他们不是在同一端点之中。在期间(Period)中,还有单位 s m h 等.

有的时候我们对拦截有一定的自定义需求的时候,我们可以继承IpRateLimitMiddleware,如以下定义:

public class CustomizationLimitMiddleware : IpRateLimitMiddleware { private readonly IpRateLimitOptions _options; private readonly IIpPolicyStore _ipPolicyStore; public CustomizationLimitMiddleware(RequestDelegate next, IOptions<IpRateLimitOptions> options, IRateLimitCounterStore counterStore, IIpPolicyStore policyStore, ILogger<IpRateLimitMiddleware> logger, IIpAddressParser ipParser = null) : base(next, options, counterStore, policyStore, logger, ipParser) { _options = options.Value; _ipPolicyStore = policyStore; } public override ClientRequestIdentity SetIdentity(HttpContext httpContext) { var clientId = "anon"; if (httpContext.Request.Headers.Keys.Contains(_options.ClientIdHeader, StringComparer.CurrentCultureIgnoreCase)) { clientId = httpContext.Request.Headers[_options.ClientIdHeader].First(); } return new ClientRequestIdentity { Path = httpContext.Request.Path.ToString().ToLowerInvariant(), HttpVerb = httpContext.Request.Method.ToLowerInvariant(), ClientId = clientId }; } }

 行为

当客户端进行HTTP调用时,IpRateLimitMiddleware执行以下操作:

从请求体中获取IP,客户端IP,Http信息,和一些URL,如果需要修改自己的提取逻辑,可以覆盖IpRateLimitMiddleware.SetIdentity。在白名单中搜索IP,客户端ID和URL,如果有匹配则不执行任何操作在IP规则中搜索匹配项,所有适用的规则按期间分组,对于每个期间使用最严格的规则在匹配的一般规则中搜索,如果匹配的一般规则具有IP规则中不存在的定义时间段,则也使用此一般规则对于每个匹配规则,速率限制计数器递增,如果计数器值大于规则限制,则请求被阻止

如果请求被阻止,则客户端会收到如下文本响应:

Status Code: 429Retry-After: 58Content: API calls quota exceeded! maximum admitted 2 per 1m.

 如果请求没有得到速率限制,那么匹配规则中定义的最长周期用于组成X-Rate-Limit标头,这些标头将在响应中注入:

X-Rate-Limit-Limit: the rate limit period (eg. 1m, 12h, 1d)X-Rate-Limit-Remaining: number of request remaining X-Rate-Limit-Reset: UTC date time (ISO 8601) when the limits resets

默认情况下,组织了客户端的调用我们都会记录到日志中,那么我们可以使用Microsoft.Extensions.Logging.ILogger,这个就略过了。

我们有的时候需要添加ip规则或者更新速率,如一下所示:

public class IpRateLimitController : Controller{private readonly IpRateLimitOptions _options;private readonly IIpPolicyStore _ipPolicyStore;public IpRateLimitController(IOptions<IpRateLimitOptions> optionsAccessor, IIpPolicyStore ipPolicyStore){_options = optionsAccessor.Value;_ipPolicyStore = ipPolicyStore;}[HttpGet]public IpRateLimitPolicies Get(){return _ipPolicyStore.Get(_options.IpPolicyPrefix);}[HttpPost]public void Post(){var pol = _ipPolicyStore.Get(_options.IpPolicyPrefix);          //addpol.IpRules.Add(new IpRateLimitPolicy{Ip = "8.8.4.4",Rules = new List<RateLimitRule>(new RateLimitRule[] {new RateLimitRule {Endpoint = "*:/api/testupdate",Limit = 100,Period = "1d" }})});          //update_ipPolicyStore.Set(_options.IpPolicyPrefix, pol);}}

这样呢,你可以将ip限制的规则放到数据库中再推送到缓存中。




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